SUMMARY Signaling pathways are key regulators of adult stem cell homeostasis and underlying mechanisms are often deregulated in cancers. Recent studies of epithelial tumors have involved OvoL/Svb transcription factors, which produce isoforms with antagonistic activities. Here we show that Svb, the unique OvoL factor in Drosophila , directly integrates multiple signaling inputs to coordinate the behavior of adult intestinal stem cell lineage. Under steady state, Svb mediates Wnt and EGFR signaling to ensure stem cell renewal and progenitor survival. This requires the post-translational processing of Svb into a transcriptional activator by Polished rice (Pri) regulatory peptides, under the regulation of ecdysone signaling. In response to PDM1, Svb expression is specifically maintained in enterocytes where it acts as a transcriptional repressor sufficient to override mitogenic signals and impose differentiation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the OvoL/Svb transcriptional switch controls the balance between stem cell survival, self-renewal and differentiation.